THE ORIGIN OF FIQH SCHOOLS IN AL-ANDALUS: FROM QAIRAWAN TO MEDINA
Mr., MA, Islamic State University Sunan Kalijaga, Indonesia, email@example.com
The development of Islam in Mashriq at the beginning of second/eighth century until third/ninth century was becoming golden age of knowledge. In al-Andalus, that period was used to find intellectual identity on Iberian peninsula. The scholars of al-Andalus did intellectual journey (riila ‘ilmiyya) to Mashriq through several intellectual cities. From Sham, Andalusian scholars followed al-Auza‘i school, which officially became the official school of the Umayyad dynasty in the early days of ‘Abd al-Ra?man al-Dakhil. The provocative cities and the cause of conflict in al-Andalus was Iraq region such as Baghdad. As capital city Abbasid dynasty, that became rival of the Umayyad, Baghdad and other Iraq cities were not well-intentioned for learning. Some scholars who learned from Iraq and then returned to al-Andalus were forbidden to spread their ideas, schools and books that they brought from Iraq. This led Andalusian scholars to seek the center of knowledge in Medina, the city that was considered supporting Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus. This intellectual network of Medina caused many scholars in al-Andalus became followers of Maliki school. Maliki school then dominated in al-Andalus by replacing al-Auza‘i school. The scholars also took the route of knowledge from Qairawan, as agency area before going to Medina. The scholars of Maliki school that supported by the Umayyad’s government got authority to ban and censor other schools and books that were incompatible with Malikiyya. The society of al-Andalus under the rulers of Maliki school only used and got the Qur’an and Muwatta’ Malik as the only references of knowledge. The fiqh network in al-Andalus will determine the types of scientific studies, books and also style of thought that can be studied and learned over ther.
|FULL TEXT PDF