Galina L. Sokolova1, Anna. L. Kolyago2, Irina V. Trubyanova3*, Alla A. Fokina4 & Andrey V. Rychkov5
1 Assoc. Prof., Mari State University, Russia,
2 Assoc. Prof., Mari State University, Russia,
3 Assoc. Prof., Mari State University, Russia,
4 Senior Lecturer, Mari State University, Russia,
5 Assoc. Prof., Mari State University, Russia,
*Corresponding author

This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of infinitive and its syntactic functions in the Mari, German and French languages. Today, great interest in linguistics is caused by research and comparative analysis of the languages of different language families. The Mari language is a representative of the Altaic language family, German and French belong to the Indo-European languages. Interest in this work is not just finding similarities and differences between different linguistic families of languages, but also within one language family, in particular between German and French. The aim of the work is to reveal the features of infinitive and its syntactic functions in Mari, German and French. The aim assumes the solution of certain tasks among which there is a disclosure of the nature of infinitive, definition of types and characteristics of infinitive and its syntactic functions in the compared languages. To solve the tasks set in the study the method of the synchronous description of collected material with the use of the distributive analysis and elements of diachronic method is used. The comparative method makes it possible to establish similarities and differences in the analyzed languages. Infinitive is one of the oldest grammatical forms of language, but its development in different languages took place in different ways. Today infinitive is a form that exists in almost every language. In modern linguistics, infinitive is defined as a form formed from the verb. Infinitive indicates action without connection with its subject, i.e. regardless to the person, number, time and mood. In its origin, the infinitive is the verbal noun with the meaning of the action. The fulfilled analysis shows that the syntactic functions of infinitive in Mari, German, and French are mostly the same. The difference is that in German and French, infinitive is more complex in its structure than in the Mari language. In German, it is manifested in the fact that infinitive has not lost its close connection with the noun and can be substantiated quite easily. Also infinitive with the particle zu is widely distributed and in combination with the verbs haben, sein and the same particle zu. In French, a special kind of infinitive is the prepositional infinitive, which is connected with the analytical structure of the language. The obtained results can be used in the process of teaching German and French for the audience for which the Mari language is native.

Keywords: syntax; Mari language; German language; French language; infinitive


CITATION: Abstracts & Proceedings of ADVED 2017 - 3rd International Conference on Advances in Education and Social Sciences, 9-11 October 2017- Istanbul, Turkey

ISBN: 978-605-82433-0-9